Research and references
Efficacy and safety of curcumin and its scombination with boswellic acid in osteoarthritis: a comparative, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2018;18:7. Haroyan A, Mukuchyan V, Mkrtchyan N, et al.
Both Boswellia and Curcumin have been used traditionally for thousands of years for the treatment of inflammation. This clinical trial was to assess the efficacy and safety of curcuminoid complex extract from turmeric rhizome with turmeric volatile oil and its combination with boswellic acid extract from Indian frankincense root vs placebo for the treatment of 40- to 70-year-old patients with osteoarthritis (OA).
201 patients took 350 mg curcuminoids and 150 mg boswellic acid orally three times a day for 12 weeks in a three-arm, parallel-group, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Patients were assessed for joint pain, morning stiffness, limitations of physical function, and the patient’s global assessment of disease severity.
After only 3 months of continuous treatment positive effects of curcuminoids and boswellic acid compared to placebo were observed. The treatments were well tolerated.
The study concluded that “twelve-week use of curcumin complex or its combination with boswellic acid reduces pain-related symptoms in patients with OA. Curcumin in combination with boswellic acid is more effective. Combining Curcuma longa and Boswellia serrata extracts increases the efficacy of OA treatment presumably due to synergistic effects of curcumin and boswellic acid.”
Safety and anti-inflammatory activity of curcumin: a component of turmeric (Curcuma longa).
J Alter Complement Med. 2003 Feb;9(1):161-8.
Turmeric is a spice that comes from the root Curcuma longa, which has been used traditionally for thousands of years in Ayurvedic medicine for its anti-inflammatory, and other properties.
This study was a systematic review of literature whose goal it was to summarize existing literature on the safety and anti-inflammatory activity of curcumin.
The author completed a search of the following resources:
- Computerized database MEDLINE (1966 to January 2002);
- Bibliographies of papers identified through MEDLINE;
- Internet search using multiple search engines for references on this topic was conducted;
- The PDR for Herbal Medicines, and four textbooks on herbal medicine and their bibliographies
The author was able to identify a large number of studies on curcumin, which included studies on the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and antifungal properties of curcuminoids. Studies on the toxicity and anti-inflammatory properties of curcumin have included in vitro, animal, and human studies. No toxicity from curcumin was found in a human trial with 25 subjects using up to 8000 mg of curcumin per day for 3 months. Five other human trials using dosages of 1125-2500 mg of curcumin per day have also found it to be safe. Evidence of anti-inflammatory activity of curcumin have been found in human studies.
The study concluded that curcumin has been shown to be safe in six human trials and has demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity. It suggests that “curcumin may exert its anti-inflammatory activity by inhibition of a number of different molecules that play a role in inflammation”.
Efficacy and tolerability of Boswellia serrata extract in treatment of osteoarthritis of knee--a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial.
Phytomedicine. 2003 Jan;10(1):3-7.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic, progressive, degenerative disorder commonly affecting the knee joint. Its symptoms include pain, swelling and decreased joint mobility. Boswellia serrata is a tree whose therapeutic effect of its gum (guggulu) has been long known. It possesses anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-arthritic qualities.
The goal of this study was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of Boswellia serrata extract in the treatment of OA of the knee.
A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study was conducted in 30 patients with OA of the knee. 15 patients received the active drug and 15 received the placebo for eight weeks. This was followed by a washout and then the groups were crossed over to receive the opposite intervention for 8 weeks.
All patients receiving the drug treatment reported a decrease in knee pain, increased knee mobility and were able to increase their walking distance. Patients also reported a decreased frequency in the incidence of joint swelling. No change was noted radiologically.
The differences between the drug treated and placebo were statistically significant and clinically relevant. Boswellia was well tolerated by subjects other than some minor gastrointestinal effects. The author concluded that Boswellia serrata be recommended in patients of osteoarthritis of the knee.
Natural Sleep Aid
Effects of L-theanine on the release of alpha-brain waves in human volunteers.
Nippon Nogeikagaku Kaishi 1998;72:153-157.
Ito K, Nagato Y, Aoi N, et al
L-Theanine is an amino acid found in green tea leaf and in its infusion, and is known to control excitement caused by caffeine. It is also known that the oral administration of L-theanine to rats results in a decrease of serotonin and increase of catecholamines in their brain. L-Theanine has been confirmed to be safe in animal experiments. We found recently that oral intake of L-theanine caused a feeling of relaxation among the human volunteers examined. These observations led us to do experiments on the effects of administration of L-theanine on the brain electric waves. Eight female university students were selected as volunteers. Four of them were ranked to be Grade I (the highest anxiety) and the remaining four, Grade V (the lowest anxiety) in an investigation done by the manifest anxiety scale method. A dose of oral administration of 200 mg of L-theanine dissolved in 100 ml of water resulted in the generation of alpha-electric waves in the occipital and parietal regions of the brains of the subjects. The emission intensity of alpha-brain waves (integrated s a function of investigation times and area) was significantly greater in the group of Grade I than that of Grade V. These results indicate the possibility for L-theanine to be applied to foods and beverages as a new type of functional food ingredient for its relaxation effect.
A double-blind, placebo-controlled investigation of the effects of Passiflora incarnata (passionflower) herbal tea on subjective sleep quality
Phytother.Res. 2011 Aug;25(8):1153-9. doi: 10.1002/ptr.3400. Epub 2011 Feb 3.
Ngan A1, Conduit R.
Passiflora incarnata is a traditional herbal sedative, anxiolytic and a popular sleep aid used for the treatment of sleep disturbance. Several controlled experiments have demonstrated enhanced sleep in laboratory animals, but clinical trials in humans are lacking. The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of Passiflora incarnata herbal tea on human sleep, as measured using sleep diaries validated by polysomnography (PSG). This study featured a double-blind, placebo-controlled, repeated-measures design with a counterbalanced order of treatments (passionflower vs placebo tea), separated by a 1 week 'washout' period. Forty-one participants (18-35 years) were exposed to each treatment for a week, whereby they consumed a cup of the tea and filled out a sleep diary for 7 days, and completed Spielberger's state-trait anxiety inventory on the seventh morning. Ten participants also underwent overnight PSG on the last night of each treatment period. Of six sleep-diary measures analysed, sleep quality showed a significantly better rating for passionflower compared with placebo (t(40) = 2.70, p < 0.01). These initial findings suggest that the consumption of a low dose of Passiflora incarnata, in the form of tea, yields short-term subjective sleep benefits for healthy adults with mild fluctuations in sleep quality.
Stress & Focus Support
L-theanine, a natural constituent in tea, and its effect on mental state.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2008;17 Suppl 1:167-8.
Tea is the most widely consumed beverage in the world after water. Tea is known to be a rich source of flavonoid antioxidants. However, tea also contains a unique amino acid, L-theanine that may modulate aspects of brain function in humans. Evidence from human electroencephalograph (EEG) studies show that it has a direct effect on the brain (Juneja et al. Trends in Food Science & Tech 1999;10;199-204). L-theanine significantly increases activity in the alpha frequency band which indicates that it relaxes the mind without inducing drowsiness. However, this effect has only been established at higher doses than that typically found in a cup of black tea (approximately 20mg). The aim of the current research was to establish this effect at more realistic dietary levels. EEG was measured in healthy, young participants at baseline and 45, 60, 75, 90 and 105 minutes after ingestion of 50mg L-theanine (n=16) or placebo (n=19). Participants were resting with their eyes closed during EEG recording. There was a greater increase in alpha activity across time in the L-theanine condition (relative to placebo (p+0.05). A second study replicated this effect in participants engaged in passive activity. These data indicate that L-theanine, at realistic dietary levels, has a significant effect on the general state of mental alertness or arousal. Furthermore, alpha activity is known to play an important role in critical aspects of attention, and further research is therefore focused on understanding the effect of L-theanine on attentional processes.
The combination of L-theanine and caffeine improves cognitive performance and increases subjective alertness.
Nutr Neurosci. 2010 Dec;13(6):283-90.
The non-proteinic amino acid L-theanine and caffeine, a methylxanthine derivative, are naturally occurring ingredients in tea. The present study investigated the effect of a combination of 97 mg L-theanine and 40 mg caffeine as compared to placebo treatment on cognitive performance, alertness, blood pressure, and heart rate in a sample of young adults (n = 44). Cognitive performance, self-reported mood, blood pressure, and heart rate were measured before L-theanine and caffeine administration (i.e. at baseline) and 20 min and 70 min thereafter. The combination of moderate levels of L-theanine and caffeine significantly improved accuracy during task switching and self-reported alertness (both P < 0.01) and reduced self-reported tiredness (P < 0.05). There were no significant effects on other cognitive tasks, such as visual search, choice reaction times, or mental rotation. The present results suggest that 97 mg of L-theanine in combination with 40 mg of caffeine helps to focus attention during a demanding cognitive task.
Combinations of Ashwagandha leaf extracts protect brain-derived cells against oxidative stress and induce differentiation.
Ashwagandha, a traditional Indian herb, has been known for its variety of therapeutic activities. We earlier demonstrated anticancer activities in the alcoholic and water extracts of the leaves that were mediated by activation of tumor suppressor functions and oxidative stress in cancer cells. Low doses of these extracts were shown to possess neuroprotective activities in vitro and in vivo assays.
We used cultured glioblastoma and neuroblastoma cells to examine the effect of extracts (alcoholic and water) as well as their bioactive components for neuroprotective activities against oxidative stress. Various biochemical and imaging assays on the marker proteins of glial and neuronal cells were performed along with their survival profiles in control, stressed and recovered conditions. We found that the extracts and one of the purified components, withanone, when used at a low dose, protected the glial and neuronal cells from oxidative as well as glutamate insult, and induced their differentiation per se. Furthermore, the combinations of extracts and active component were highly potent endorsing the therapeutic merit of the combinational approach.
Ashwagandha leaf derived bioactive compounds have neuroprotective potential and may serve as supplement for brain health.
Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials on cognitive effects of Bacopa monnieri extract.
J Ethnopharmacol. 2014;151(1):528-35.
Bacopa monnieri has a long history in Ayurvedic medicine for neurological and behavioral defects.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, Cochrane Central of clinical trial, WHO registry, Thai Medical Index, Index Medicus Siriraj library and www.clinicaltrial.gov were searched from the inception date of each database to June 2013 using scientific and common synonyms of Bacopa monnieri, cognitive performance or memory. The reference lists of retrieved articles were also reviewed. Randomized, placebo controlled human intervention trials on chronic ≥ 12 weeks dosing of standardized extracts of Bacopa monnieri without any co-medication were included in this study. The methodological quality of studies was assessed using Cochrane's risk of bias assessment and Jadad's quality scales. The weighted mean difference and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were performed using the random-effects model of the Dersimonian-Laird method.
Nine studies met the inclusion criteria using 518 subjects. Overall quality of all included trials was low risk of bias and quality of reported information was high. Meta-analysis of 437 eligible subjects showed improved cognition by shortened Trail B test (-17.9 ms; 95% CI -24.6 to -11.2; p<0.001) and decreased choice reaction time (10.6 ms; 95% CI -12.1 to -9.2; p<0.001).
This meta-analysis suggests that Bacopa monnieri has the potential to improve cognition, particularly speed of attention but only a large well designed 'head-to-head' trial against an existing medication will provide definitive data on its efficacy on healthy or dementia patients using a standardized preparation.
Select Research and References:
1) Seddon M1, Melikian N, Dworakowski R, Shabeeh H, Jiang B, Byrne J, Casadei B, Chowienczyk P, Shah AM. Effects of neuronal nitric oxide synthase on human coronary artery diameter and blood flow in vivo. Circulation. 2009 May 26;119(20):2656-62.
2) Ferguson SK1, Hirai DM, Copp SW, Holdsworth CT, Allen JD, Jones AM, Musch TI, Poole DC. Impact of dietary nitrate supplementation via beetroot juice on exercising muscle vascular control in rats. J Physiol. 2013 Jan 15;591(2):547-57.
5) Xianchu L1,2, Ming L1,2, Xiangbin L2, Lan Z2. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract supplementation affects exhaustive exercise-induced fatigue in mice. Food Nutr Res. 2018 Jun 6;62..
Effects of curcumin supplementation on exercise-induced oxidative stress in humans
Int J Sports Med. 2014 Jun;35(6):469-75.
7) Glenn JM1,2,3, Gray M4,5, Wethington LN4, Stone MS4,5, Stewart RW Jr4,5, Moyen NE5. Acute citrulline malate supplementation improves upper- and lower-body submaximal weightlifting exercise performance in resistance-trained females.Eur J Nutr. 2017 Mar;56(2):775-784.
Impact of dietary nitrate supplementation via beetroot juice on exercising muscle vascular control in rats
Circulation. 2009 May 26;119(20):2656-62.
Dietary nitrate (NO(3)(-)) supplementation, via its reduction to nitrite (NO(2)(-)) and subsequent conversion to nitric oxide (NO) and other reactive nitrogen intermediates, reduces blood pressure and the O(2) cost of submaximal exercise in humans. Despite these observations, the effects of dietary NO(3)(-) supplementation on skeletal muscle vascular control during locomotory exercise remain unknown. We tested the hypotheses that dietary NO(3)(-) supplementation via beetroot juice (BR) would reduce mean arterial pressure (MAP) and increase hindlimb muscle blood flow in the exercising rat. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (3-6 months) were administered either NO(3)(-) (via beetroot juice; 1 mmol kg(-1) day(-1), BR n = 8) or untreated (control, n = 11) tap water for 5 days. MAP and hindlimb skeletal muscle blood flow and vascular conductance (radiolabelled microsphere infusions) were measured during submaximal treadmill running (20 m min(-1), 5% grade). BR resulted in significantly lower exercising MAP (control: 137 ± 3, BR: 127 ± 4 mmHg, P < 0.05) and blood [lactate] (control: 2.6 ± 0.3, BR: 1.9 ± 0.2 mm, P < 0.05) compared to control. Total exercising hindlimb skeletal muscle blood flow (control: 108 ± 8, BR: 150 ± 11 ml min(-1) (100 g)(-1), P < 0.05) and vascular conductance (control: 0.78 ± 0.05, BR: 1.16 ± 0.10 ml min(-1) (100 g)(-1) mmHg(-1), P < 0.05) were greater in rats that received BR compared to control. The relative differences in blood flow and vascular conductance for the 28 individual hindlimb muscles and muscle parts correlated positively with their percentage type IIb + d/x muscle fibres (blood flow: r = 0.74, vascular conductance: r = 0.71, P < 0.01 for both). These data support the hypothesis that NO(3)(-) supplementation improves vascular control and elevates skeletal muscle O(2) delivery during exercise predominantly in fast-twitch type II muscles, and provide a potential mechanism by which NO(3)(-) supplementation improves metabolic control.
Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract supplementation affects exhaustive exercise-induced fatigue in mice
Food Nutr Res. 2018 Jun 6;62.
Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) has been extensively reported to possess a wide range of beneficial properties in multiple tissue damage. Previous studies have shown that exhaustive exercise-induced fatigue associates with oxidative stress injury, inflammatory response, and mitochondrial dysfunction.
The aim of this study is to investigate the anti-fatigue effects of GSPE in mice and explore its possible underlying mechanism.
The mouse model of exhaustive exercise-induced fatigue was established by using the forced swimming test, and GSPE was orally treated for successive 28 days at 0, 1, 50 and 100 mg/kg/day of body weight, designated the control, GSPE-L, GSPE-M and GSPE-H groups, respectively.
The presented results showed that treatment of GSPE at a dose of 50 and 100 mg/kg/day of body weight significantly relieved exhaustive exercise-induced fatigue, indicated by increasing the forced swimming time. In addition, treatment of GSPE significantly improved the creatine phosphokinase and lactic dehydrogenase, as well as lactic acid level in exhaustive swimming. For underlying mechanisms, treatment of GSPE had anti-fatigue effects by promoting antioxidant ability and resisting oxidative effect, as represented by increased total antioxidative capability levels, enhanced superoxide dismutase and catalase activities, and ameliorated malondialdehyde levels. Furthermore, treatment of GSPE significantly inhibited the activity of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β, which suggested that its protective effects on exhaustive exercise-induced fatigue may be attributed to inhibition of inflammatory response. Last but not the least, treatment of GSPE significantly improved succinate dehydrogenase and Na+-K+-ATPase levels to enhance mitochondrial function during exhaustive swimming-induced fatigue.
These results proved that treatment of GSPE possessed the beneficial properties of anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and mitochondrial protection to improve exhaustive exercise, which suggested that GSPE could be used as an effective functional food to delay fatigue.
Effects of curcumin supplementation on exercise-induced oxidative stress in humans
Int J Sports Med. 2014 Jun;35(6):469-75.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of curcumin supplementation on exercise-induced oxidative stress in humans. 10 male participants, ages 26.8±2.0 years (mean ±SE), completed 3 trials in a random order: (1) placebo (control), (2) single (only before exercise) and (3) double (before and immediately after exercise) curcumin supplementation trials. Each participant received oral administration of 90 mg of curcumin or the placebo 2h before exercise and immediately after exercise. Each participant walked or ran at 65% of V˙2max on a treadmill for 60min. Blood samples were collected pre-exercise, immediately after exercise and 2h after exercise. The concentrations of serum derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites measured immediately after exercise were significantly higher than pre-exercise values in the placebo trial (308.8±12.9 U. CARR, P<0.05), but not in the single (259.9±17.1 U. CARR) or double (273.6±19.7 U. CARR) curcumin supplementation trials. Serum biological antioxidant potential concentrations measured immediately after exercise were significantly elevated in the single and double curcumin supplementation trials compared with pre-exercise values (P<0.05). These findings indicate that curcumin supplementation can attenuate exercise-induced oxidative stress by increasing blood antioxidant capacity.
Acute citrulline malate supplementation improves upper- and lower-body submaximal weightlifting exercise performance in resistance-trained females.
Eur J Nutr. 2017 Mar;56(2):775-784.
Citrulline malate (CM) is a nonessential amino acid that increases exercise performance in males. However, based on physiological differences between genders, these results cannot be extrapolated to females. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to evaluate effects of acute CM supplementation on upper- and lower-body weightlifting performance in resistance-trained females.
Fifteen females (23 ± 3 years) completed two randomized, double-blind trials consuming either CM (8 g dextrose + 8 g CM) or a placebo (8 g dextrose). One hour after supplement consumption, participants performed six sets each of upper- (i.e., bench press) and lower-body (i.e., leg press) exercises to failure at 80 % of previously established one-repetition maximum. Immediately after each set, repetitions completed, heart rate and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded.
Repeated-measures analysis of variance indicated that subjects completed significantly (p = .045) more repetitions throughout upper-body exercise when consuming CM versus placebo (34.1 ± 5.7 vs. 32.9 ± 6.0, respectively). When consuming CM, similar significant (p = .03) improvements in total repetitions completed were observed for lower-body exercise (66.7 ± 30.5 vs. 55.13 ± 20.64, respectively). Overall RPE score was significantly lower (p = .02) in upper-body exercise when subjects consumed CM versus placebo (7.9 ± 0.3 and 8.6 ± 0.2, respectively). The supplement consumed exhibited no significant effects on heart rate at any time point.
Acute CM supplementation in females increased upper- and lower-body resistance exercise performance and decreased RPE during upper-body exercise. These data indicate that athletes competing in sports with muscular endurance-based requirements may potentially improve performance by acutely supplementing CM.
Select Research and References:
1) Waldron M1,2, Ralph C3, Jeffries O3, Tallent J3, Theis N4, Patterson SD3. The effects of acute leucine or leucine-glutamine co-ingestion on recovery from eccentrically biased exercise. Amino Acids. 2018 May 16.
2) Saat M1, Singh R, Sirisinghe RG, Nawawi M. Rehydration after exercise with fresh young coconut water, carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage and plain water. J Physiol Anthropol Appl Human Sci. 2002 Mar;21(2):93-104.
4) Veronese N1, Berton L1, Carraro S1, Bolzetta F1, De Rui M1, Perissinotto E1, Toffanello ED1, Bano G1, Pizzato S1, Miotto F1, Coin A1, Manzato E1, Sergi G1. Effect of oral magnesium supplementation on physical performance in healthy elderly women involved in a weekly exercise program: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 Sep;100(3):974-81.
5) Legault Z1, Bagnall N, Kimmerly DS. The Influence of Oral L-Glutamine Supplementation on Muscle Strength Recovery and Soreness Following Unilateral Knee Extension Eccentric Exercise. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2015 Oct;25(5):417-26.
The effects of acute leucine or leucine-glutamine co-ingestion on recovery from eccentrically biased exercise.
Amino Acids. 2018 May 16.
This study investigated the effects of leucine or leucine + glutamine supplementation on recovery from eccentric exercise. In a double-blind independent groups design, 23 men were randomly assigned to a leucine (0.087 g/kg; n = 8),
leucine + glutamine (0.087 g/kg + glutamine0.3 g/kg; n = 8) or placebo (0.3 g/kg maltodextrin; n = 7) group. Participants performed 5 sets of drop jumps, with each set comprising 20 repetitions. Isometric knee-extensor strength, counter-movement jump (CMJ) height, delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) and creatine kinase (CK) were measured at baseline, 1, 24, 48 h and 72 h post-exercise. There was a time × group interaction for isometric strength, CMJ and CK (P < 0.05), with differences between the leucine + glutamine and placebo group at 48 h and 72 h for strength (P = 0.013; d = 1.43 and P < 0.001; d = 2.06), CMJ (P = 0.008; d = 0.87 and P = 0.019; d = 1.17) and CK at 24 h (P = 0.012; d = 0.54) and 48 h (P = 0.010; d = 1.37). The leucine group produced higher strength at 72 h compared to placebo (P = 0.007; d = 1.65) and lower CK at 24 h (P = 0.039; d = 0.63) and 48 h (P = 0.022; d = 1.03). Oral leucine or leucine + glutamine increased the rate of recovery compared to placebo after eccentric exercise. These findings highlight potential benefits of co-ingesting these amino acids to ameliorate recovery.
Rehydration after exercise with fresh young coconut water, carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage and plain water.
J Physiol Anthropol Appl Human Sci. 2002 Mar;21(2):93-104.
This is to cross-over study to assess the effectiveness of fresh young coconut water (CW), and carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage (CEB) compared with plain water (PW) for whole body rehydration and blood volume (BV) restoration during a 2 h rehydration period following exercise-induced dehydration. Eight healthy male volunteers (mean age and VO2max of 22.4 +/- 3.3 years and 45.8 +/- 1.5 ml min kg-1 respectively) exercised at 60% of VO2max in the heat (31.1 +/- 0.03 degrees C, 51.4 +/- 0.1% rh) until 2.78 +/- 0.06% (1.6 +/- 0.1 kg) of their body weight (BW) was lost. After exercise, the subjects sat for 2 h in a thermoneutral environment (22.5 +/- 0.1 degrees C; 67.0 +/- 1.0% rh) and drank a volume of PW, CW and CEB on different occasions representing 120% of the fluid loss. A blood and urine sample, and the body weight of each subject was taken before and after exercise and at 30 min intervals throughout a rehydration period. Each subject remained fasted throughout rehydration. Each fluid was consumed in three portions in separate trials representing 50% (781 +/- 47 ml), 40% (625 +/- 33 ml) and 30% (469 +/- 28 ml) of the 120% fluid loss at 0, 30 and 60 min of the 2 h rehydration period, respectively. The drinks given were randomized. In all the trials the subjects were somewhat hypo hydrated (range 0.08-0.18 kg BW below EU hydrated BW; p > 0.05) after a 2 h rehydration period since additional water and BW were lost as a result of urine formation, respiration, sweat and metabolism. The percent of body weight loss that was regained (used as index of percent rehydration) during CW, PW, and CEB trials was 75 +/- 5%, 73 +/- 5% and 80 +/- 4% respectively, but was not statistically different between trials. The rehydration index, which provided an indication of how much of what was actually ingested was used for body weight restoration, was again not different statistically between trials (1.56 +/- 0.14, 1.36 +/- 0.13 and 1.71 +/- 0.21 for CW, CEB and PW respectively). Although BV restoration was better with CW, it was not statistically different from CEB and PW. Cumulative urine output was similar in all trials. There was no difference at any time in serum Na+ and Cl-, serum osmolality, and net fluid balance between the three trials. Urine osmolality decreased after 1 h during the rehydration period and it was lowest in the PW trial. Plasma glucose concentrations were significantly higher compared with PW ingestion when CW and CEB were ingested during the rehydration period. CW was significantly sweeter, caused less nausea, fullness and no stomach upset and was also easier to consume in a larger amount compared with CEB and PW ingestion. In conclusion, ingestion of fresh young coconut water, a natural refreshing beverage, could be used for whole body rehydration after exercise.
Vitamin C and Immune Function.
Nutrients. 2017 Nov 3;9(11). pii: E1211.
Vitamin C is an essential micronutrient for humans, with pleiotropic functions related to its ability to donate electrons. It is a potent antioxidant and a cofactor for a family of biosynthetic and gene regulatory enzymes. Vitamin C contributes to immune defense by supporting various cellular functions of both the innate and adaptive immune system. Vitamin C supports epithelial barrier function against pathogens and promotes the oxidant scavenging activity of the skin, thereby potentially protecting against environmental oxidative stress. Vitamin C accumulates in phagocytic cells, such as neutrophils, and can enhance chemotaxis, phagocytosis, generation of reactive oxygen species, and ultimately microbial killing. It is also needed for apoptosis and clearance of the spent neutrophils from sites of infection by macrophages, thereby decreasing necrosis/Neotses and potential tissue damage. The role of vitamin C in lymphocytes is less clear, but it has been shown to enhance differentiation and proliferation of B- and T-cells, likely due to its gene regulating effects. Vitamin C deficiency results in impaired immunity and higher susceptibility to infections. In turn, infections significantly impact on vitamin C levels due to enhanced inflammation and metabolic requirements. Furthermore, supplementation with vitamin C appears to be able to both prevent and treat respiratory and systemic infections. Prophylactic prevention of infection requires dietary vitamin C intakes that provide at least adequate, if not saturating plasma levels (i.e., 100-200 mg/day), which optimize cell and tissue levels. In contrast, treatment of established infections requires significantly higher (gram) doses of the vitamin to compensate for the increased inflammatory response and metabolic demand.
The Influence of Oral L-Glutamine Supplementation on Muscle Strength Recovery and Soreness Following Unilateral Knee Extension Eccentric Exercise.
Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2015 Oct;25(5):417-26.
The study aimed to examine the effects that L-glutamine supplementation has on quadriceps muscle strength and soreness ratings following eccentric exercise. It was hypothesized that glutamine ingestion would quicken the recovery rate of peak force production and decrease muscle soreness ratings over a 72-hr recovery period. Sixteen healthy participants (8♀/8♂; 22 ± 4 years) volunteered in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study. Supplement conditions consisted of isoenergetic placebo (maltodextrin, 0.6 g·kg-1·day-1) and L-glutamine (0.3 g·kg-1·day-1 + 0.3 g·kg-1·day-1 maltodextrin) ingestion once per day over 72 hr. Knee extensor peak torque at 0°, 30°, and 180° per second and muscle soreness were measured before, immediately following, 24, 48, and 72 hr post eccentric exercise. Eccentric exercise consisted of 8 sets (10 repetitions/set) of unilateral knee extension at 125% maximum concentric force with 2-min rest intervals. L-glutamine resulted in greater relative peak torque at 180°/sec both immediately after (71 ± 8% vs. 66 ± 9%), and 72 hr (91 ± 8% vs. 86 ± 7%) post exercise (all, p < .01). In men, L-glutamine produced greater (p < .01) peak torques at 30°/ sec post exercise. Men also produced greater normalized peak torques at 30°/sec (Nm/kg) in the L-glutamine condition than women (all, p < .05). In the entire sample, L-glutamine resulted in lower soreness ratings at 24 (2.8 ± 1.2 vs. 3.4 ± 1.2), 48 (2.6 ± 1.4 vs. 3.9 ± 1.2), and 72 (1.7 ± 1.2 vs. 2.9 ± 1.3) hour post exercise (p < .01). The L-glutamine supplementation resulted in faster recovery of peak torque and diminished muscle soreness following eccentric exercise. The effect of L-glutamine on muscle force recovery may be greater in men than women.
Review of the health benefits of peas (Pisum sativum L.).
Br J Nutr. 2012 Aug;108 Suppl 1:S3-10. doi: 10.1017/S0007114512000852.
Pulses, including peas, have long been important components of the human diet due to their content of starch, protein and other nutrients. More recently, the health benefits other than nutrition associated with pulse consumption have attracted much interest. The focus of the present review paper is the demonstrated and potential health benefits associated with the consumption of peas, Pisum sativum L., specifically green and yellow cotyledon dry peas, also known as smooth peas or field peas. These health benefits derive mainly from the concentration and properties of starch, protein, fibre, vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals in peas. Fibre from the seed coat and the cell walls of the cotyledon contributes to gastrointestinal function and health, and reduces the digestibility of starch in peas. The intermediate amylose content of pea starch also contributes to its lower glycemic index and reduced starch digestibility. Pea protein, when hydrolyzed, may yield peptides with bioactivities, including angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitor activity and antioxidant activity. The vitamin and mineral contents of peas may play important roles in the prevention of deficiency-related diseases, specifically those related to deficiencies of Se or folate. Peas contain a variety of phytochemicals once thought of only as antinutritive factors. These include polyphenolics, in colored seed coat types in particular, which may have antioxidant and anticarcinogenic activity, saponins which may exhibit hypocholesterolaemic and anticarcinogenic activity, and galactose oligosaccharides which may exert beneficial prebiotic effects in the large intestine.
Pea proteins oral supplementation promotes muscle thickness gains during resistance training: a double-blind, randomized, Placebo-controlled clinical trial vs. Whey protein.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2015 Jan 21;12(1):3.
The effects of protein supplementation on muscle thickness and strength seem largely dependent on its composition. The current study aimed at comparing the impact of an oral supplementation with vegetable Pea protein (NUTRALYS®) vs. Whey protein and Placebo on biceps brachii muscle thickness and strength after a 12-week resistance training program.
One hundred and sixty one males, aged 18 to 35 years were enrolled in the study and underwent 12 weeks of resistance training on upper limb muscles. According to randomization, they were included in the Pea protein (n = 53), Whey protein (n = 54) or Placebo (n = 54) group. All had to take 25 g of the proteins or placebo twice a day during the 12-week training period. Tests were performed on biceps muscles at inclusion (D0), mid (D42) and post training (D84). Muscle thickness was evaluated using ultrasonography, and strength was measured on an isokinetic dynamometer.
Results showed a significant time effect for biceps brachii muscle thickness (P < 0.0001). Thickness increased from 24.9 ± 3.8 mm to 26.9 ± 4.1 mm and 27.3 ± 4.4 mm at D0, D42 and D84, respectively, with only a trend toward significant differences between groups (P = 0.09). Performing a sensitivity study on the weakest participants (with regards to strength at inclusion), thickness increases were significantly different between groups (+20.2 ± 12.3%, +15.6 ± 13.5% and +8.6 ± 7.3% for Pea, Whey and Placebo, respectively; P < 0.05). Increases in thickness were significantly greater in the Pea group as compared to Placebo whereas there was no difference between Whey and the two other conditions. Muscle strength also increased with time with no statistical difference between groups.
In addition to an appropriate training, the supplementation with pea protein promoted a greater increase of muscle thickness as compared to Placebo and especially for people starting or returning to a muscular strengthening. Since no difference was obtained between the two protein groups, vegetable pea proteins could be used as an alternative to Whey-based dietary products.
Pea, Pisum sativum, and Its Anticancer Activity.
Pharmacogn Rev. 2017 Jan-Jun;11(21):39-42.
Pisum sativum (Family: Fabaceae), as known as green pea or garden pea, has long been important in diet due to its content of fiber, protein, starch, trace elements, and many phytochemical substances. It has been shown to possess antibacterial, antidiabetic, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antihypercholesterolemia, and antioxidant activities and also shown anticancer property. Its nonnutritive biologically active components include alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, isoflavones, phenols, phytosterols, phytic acid, protease inhibitors, saponins, and tannins. This plant is rich in apigenin, hydroxybenzoic, hydroxycinnamic, luteolin, and quercetin, all of which have been reported to contribute to its remedial properties including anticarcinogenesis property. Based on established literature on the anticancer property of P. sativum and possible mode of action, this review article has focused to demonstrate that P. sativum could be further explored for the development of anticancer treatment.